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ENGLISH 大桥未久磁性种子Inherent or cooling strains in castings is much more intricate than shrinkage: it is, in fact, one of the most uncertain and obscure matters that pattern-makers and moulders have to contend with. Inherent strains may weaken castings, or cause them to break while cooling, or sometimes even after they are finished; and in many kinds of works such strains must be carefully guarded against, both in the preparation of designs and the arrangement of patterns, especially for wheels and pulleys with spokes, and for struts or braces with both ends fixed. The main difficulty resulting from cooling strains, however, is that of castings being warped and sprung; this difficulty is continually present in the foundry and machine-shop, and there is perhaps no problem in the whole range of mechanical manipulation of which there exists more diversity of opinion and practice than of means to prevent the springing of castings. This being the case, an apprentice can hardly hope for much information here. There is no doubt of springing and strains in castings being the result of constant causes that might be fully understood if it were not for the ever-changing conditions which exist in casting, both as to the form of pieces, the temperature and quality of metal, mode of cooling, and so on.
1. The value of pneumatic apparatus in reaching places where steam furnaces cannot be employed.
PREFACESecond.The steam establishes the greatest possible elasticity in the connection between a hammer and the driving power, and at the same time serves to cushion the blows at both the top and bottom of the stroke, or on the top only, as occasion may require. CHAPTER IX
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There is also a distinction between machine and hand cutting that may be noted. In machine cutting it is performed in true geometrical lines, the tools or material being moved by positive guides as in planing and turning; in hand operations, such as filing, scraping or chipping, the tools are moved without positive guidance, and act in irregular lines.Power-hammers operated by crank motion, adapted to the lighter kinds of work, are now commonly met with in the forging-shops of engineering establishments. They are usually of very simple construction, and I will mention only two points in regard to such hammers, which might be overlooked by an apprentice in examining them.
To follow out the application of power to the propulsion of vessels and trains, with the many abstruse problems that would of necessity be involved, would be to carry this work far beyond the limits within which it is most likely to be useful to the apprentice engineer; besides, it would be going beyond what can properly be termed manipulation.
3. The course or direction of transmission, whether in straight lines or at angles.A drilling machine, adapted to the usual requirements of a machine fitting establishment, consists essentially of a spindle arranged to be driven at various speeds, with a movement for feeding the drills; a firm table set at right angles to the spindle, and arranged with a vertical adjustment to or from the spindle, and a compound adjustment in a horizontal plane. The simplicity of the mechanism required to operate drilling tools is such that it has permitted various modifications, such as column drills, radial drills, suspended drills, horizontal drills, bracket drills, multiple drills, and others.
We had got near the door of the room that stood ajar, and from there came the sound of a couple of girls' voices: "Hail, Mary.... Hail, Mary...."A book containing the pattern record should be kept, in which these catalogue numbers are set down, with a short description to identify the different parts to which the numbers belong, so that all the various details of any machine can at any time be referred to. Besides this description, there should be opposite the catalogue of pattern numbers, ruled spaces, in which to enter the weight of castings, the cost of the pattern, and also the amount of turned, planed, or bored surface on each piece when it is finished, or the time required in fitting, which is the same thing. In this book the assembled parts of each machine should be set down in a separate list, so that orders for castings can be made from the list without other references. This system is the best one known to the writer, and is in substance a plan now adopted in many of the best engineering establishments. A complete system in all things pertaining to drawings and classifications should be rigidly adhered to; any plan is better than none, and the schooling of the mind to be had in the observance of systematic rules is a matter not to be neglected. New plans for promoting system may at any time arise, but such plans cannot be at any  time understood and adopted except by those who have cultivated a taste for order and regularity.
Pneumatic machinery, aside from results due to the elasticity of air, is analogous in operation to hydraulic machinery.The shelling went on during the night, and all that time the inhabitants remained in their cellars.
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